Development Operations, less formally known as DevOps, can be understood as countless concepts. A philosophy. A culture. A protocol. An insightful perspective, however, is to understand DevOps as a response. A response to evolving patterns of demand and utility for software and IT operations.

Traditionally, the software development life cycle occurred in discrete phases, each with a significant degree of separation from the other in terms of time frame and personnel. This siloed approach has significant shortcomings. It limits the speed at which applications could be developed and it limits the capacity of the developers to provide timely upgrades and maintenance. The traditional model was slow and poorly responsive to the modern environment for software demand and IT operations which required shorter development and maintenance periods to keep up with the accelerated demand and utility.

DevOps is the solution to the flaws of the traditional model. Where Development and Operations were typically separate entities and teams in the traditional model, DevOps integrates them into a slimmer, more flexible, and functional unit. This is achieved by following working principles, protocols, and cultural arrangement that promotes flexibility and agility concerning software development and IT operations. Members of DevOps teams typically develop the skill set to manage issues across the development-operations spectrum and the entire process is more automated. The advantages are immediately obvious. The development velocity for applications is increased, maintenance response times are shorter, and the process is more responsive to the requirements of end users due to enhanced capacity to adapt.

DevOps as a concept is evolving into more specific approaches. Current trends in this evolution are tailored to effectively address more specialized areas of concern.

A prominent trend in DevOps today is DevSecOps, short for Development, Security, and Operations, it is the application of the overarching philosophy of flexible integration that defines DevOps, this time with an emphasis on security. Traditionally, the security component of software development was a separate addition at the end of the development life cycle, usually by a different team and tested by a different team. However, following the DevOps philosophy of flexible integration, security development, and testing is integrated into every phase in the software development life cycle with the process becoming more automated. This bypasses speed limitations on the software development life cycle and response to security issues. It also facilitates the detection of issues faster and earlier when they are quicker, easier, and less expensive to fix. Improved collaboration facilitated by team integration provides a more efficient output and enhances software safety.

DevOps emphasizes agility. Process agility is facilitated by increased automation. Kubernetes is the leading system for automating the processes involved in containerized application development, scaling, and management. It is open source and originally designed by Google. The system itself is designed to be flexible to respond to a variety of needs and help users scale their operations without the need to enlarge their operations teams. Benefits of the system include the capacity to automate rollouts and rollbacks, application monitoring, assistance with service discovery and load balancing, and load orchestration among others.

"DevOps is that it allies the philosophy of flexibility and speed associated with DevOps with the creation of low-code products. The benefit of this approach is that it enhances inclusion and collaboration"

The way we conceptualize applications is changing. The trendy perspective is to view large applications as a number of smaller services that can each be independently managed albeit still in communication with other components via lightweight protocols. These smaller components are called microservices. To generate a user response, multiple microservices may be called upon simultaneously. The edge microservices provide is that components can be independently managed to mean that response, maintenance, and evolution are easier and faster. The app as a whole becomes less clunky in operation and more adaptive.

Speed and flexibility are key components of DevOps culture. Serverless computing facilitates both and consequently is preferred by DevOps teams. The concept of serverless computing is that of an architectural model where computing services are provided on an as-used basis and in a flexible manner that is responsive to specific requirements. The cloud provider takes care of the backend and infrastructure maintenance, freeing DevOps teams to focus on the front end and services. This helps DevOps teams develop and deploy faster. It also facilitates quick maintenance and upgrade. The process lends itself to automation thereby enhancing the potential for rapid streamlining and refinement to achieve seamless functioning. Examples of providers offering serverless computing services include AWS Lambda, IBM open whisk, and Microsoft Azure among others.

Low-Code DevOps is an evolving trend in DevOps albeit it's not a very common sight on the tech scene. A simple understanding of the concept of low-code DevOps is that it allies the philosophy of flexibility and speed associated with DevOps with the creation of low-code products. The benefit of this approach is that it enhances inclusion and collaboration. Non-DevOps team personnel can easily cross-skill and provide effective contributions to the DevOps process bypassing the barrier of a code-intensive process. Developers of all skill levels can build and contribute better to a low-code system.

Artificial Intelligence for IT Operations (AI OPS) is a term that refers to the integration of AI into DevOps.The objectives behind this increased focus on Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning integration into DevOps include increased automation, efficiency, and scalability of the process. With AI in play, real-time detection and diagnosis of issues as well as solution creation based on historic patterns can be achieved. This in turn has the potential to make the DevOps process more efficient, responsive, and fit for purpose.

Like DevOps, GitOps is a modern approach to software development and IT operations. However, unlike DevOps that's essentially a culture set of best practices that can be flexibly applied, GitOps relies on a particular tool- Git. It functions as an operational framework that relies on Git repositories as a source of truth. A synergistic relationship can exist between GitOps and DevOps, especially where the Kubernetes system is concerned. GitOps can be utilized to promote DevOps practices in appropriate environments such as a Kubernetes cluster. When appropriately deployed, GitOps can accelerate workflow and boost efficiency for DevOps teams.